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Psychological aspects of spirituality.
центр позитивной психотерапии, позитивная психотерапия, Максим Гончаров
maxim_goncharov
Once upon a time the old Indian opened his grandson a vital truth:
- In every man there is a struggle, much like the struggle between two wolves. One wolf is evil - envy, jealousy, sorrow, selfishness, ambition, lies ...The other wolf is good - peace, love, hope, truth, goodness, faithfulness ...
Little Indian, touched to the core words of his grandfather, a few moments thought and then asked: - And what a wolf at the end wins?
Old Indian smiled faintly and replied: - always wins the wolf, which you feed better...
 
World is changing and we change with it. Never before in human history for all the world was not so vulnerable, and people are so dependent on one another. The world is getting smaller, and the events happening in the world is no longer regarded as a case of "out there". It is becoming increasingly difficult to remain indifferent to what is happening in the world. Today mankind is probably has no more important problem than the determination of such ethical (value) systems, which could lead to the establishment of fair and highly moral relationships between people and between nations. It must be noted that this crises and challenges truly bring people together and ultimately all humanity. It seems that this experience is the only teacher who brings to us a lesson. Hence unity is probably the only thing on this world that can defend us.
Human history has witnessed the birth of many religions and philosophies, philosophical currents that, in general, have one common idea: the person needs training and development, but the person has a body and an immaterial part and needs.
Religion, translated from the Latin is derived from the Latin verb re-legere (to gather again, to combine). In other words, the meaning of religion is to bring people to unity. This is what exactly has always happened at the beginning. Every religion is appearing approximately every 500-1000 years in a certain historical period of human development has brought the doctrine, which served as a remedy for the problems and help people organize their lives in accordance with the needs of the time. This led to the growth of civilization and progress. Obviously, part of the needs of mankind has not changed during the life of all mankind. On the other hand, the needs of humanity 5000 years ago, 2,000 years ago and is now heavily dependent on the stage of its development. Therefore, since each level of human development has its own problems, each time has its medicine. First religions had united tribes and later nations, now perhaps it's time to union for all mankind. One well-known oriental philosopher Bahá'u'lláh once said, "If religion leads to hatred and separation, it is better to have no religion."
Every religion has two main components: the spiritual and social. The spiritual part of all religions is the same. It is essential worldview. For example, all religions teach love, do well, to forgive, to pray to God, believe in life after death, to renounce the material world, etc. The second part - deals with social principles. It explains how and what to do: how and in what direction to pray, how and to whom to worship, to fast, how to dress, how to sacrifice, ritual and ceremonial forms, etc. It is because of this part there is much contention and controversy between the followers. Sometimes, for these aspects of who and which side followers are praying, some people are willing to kill each other. People often forget that the traditions and rituals are just tools or instruments for achieving certain goals, rather than the actual main point of spirituality.
Here is a question: What is in common between the person who collects things for the orphans and those who blow up the bus? Despite the fact that one is godly, and the other as a villain, they both see the meaning in what they do, believe what they are doing something very important, full of spiritual meaning. It can serve as additional proof that the spiritual and ideological domain has any human being, but it can be filled up with a variety of content, for which each person carries his or her own responsibility. Sometimes rituals, dogmas and traditions, losing its true meaning and purpose, replace the true worldview. Nevertheless, the need for spirituality is evident in every person, even though everyone is satisfied in different ways.
Under the concept of Positive Psychotherapy (after Nossrat Peseschkian, 1968), all humans are religious by nature, even if they do not adhere to traditional religions. If someone does not follow the traditional religions, one believes in so-called ersatz religion, that is to say substitutes for religion, such as the belief in the good or evil forces of fate, past lives, horoscope, feng shui, aliens, or the communist party, hold any other worldviews, and so on. Man is always searching for meaning and answers to the questions: why and what for?
Religion, as I said - it is nothing like education. It gives people the rules and regulations as may be to develop their physical, intellectual and spiritual qualities that you need in order to achieve a decent life. However, religion should be go in accordance with time and take into account the requirements of time, otherwise it leads to fanaticism, and the man turns to the ersatz religions.
Religion is distinguished from the faith. While religion is a doctrine, the faith is an ability that any human beings possess regardless of religion. It is the ability to establish relationships with the unknowable, the ability to see the resources. The ability to believe is one of the key abilities; it just is what a person believes in. You can believe in yourself, in God, in the car, in religion, generally in anything. Dissatisfaction with their system of beliefs makes a person look for a different worldview that can explain what is happening in the world and everything to make any sense. In modern psychology, there are whole areas, such as existentialism, which explain all the problems of human conflict in terms of meaning.
We take the ability to "believe" more often than it might seem. That belief is largely responsible for the sense of calm or anxiety. For example, if a person thinks (believes) that he did not do something good enough, or if it adheres to the ideas of sin, then he would feel restless, unconsciously expect punishment, with little understanding that he can do about it and how to make a difference. The absence of clear and conscious purpose or meaning is the main cause of anxiety disorders. The law of psychology is that individual will never respond to reality itself. One reacts to their visions of this reality. Therefore, the choice of what we believe should be taken consciously, rather than simply copy traditional attitudes of close friends.
Another human capacity is socialization. We need to belong to any group of people. So often a person joins a religious group, not because he or her likes its principles, but because can help to avoid some of the social conflicts, not standing out and not causing too many questions on the environment. In another case, a man turns to a religious group, as it feels accepted and recognized. However, if the person will be asked about how religion has changed his life, as it determines what is good and what is not, often, they will tell you only certain rituals, events, or attributes, with which they identifies their beliefs.
Church, mosque, synagogue or other house of worship is an institution that represents the religion. At all times, the institution served, as a place to receive and impart information to people whom otherwise this information is nowhere to get. However, this institution is not a prerequisite for the manifestation of faith and spirituality. In addition, the institute has helped people to meet with fellow believers, and thus served the function of socialization. Currently, people can easily find the information themselves, and generally become more educated to seek answers to their questions.
Humanity is in crisis. Everywhere there is a noticeable shortage of unity. Conflicts break humanity down. Such diversity: national, ethnic, social, cultural, religious, raises many questions and disagreements. How can achieve unity in a cultural diversity?
Paradoxically, the answer to this question lies in two other matters:
1. What all people have in common?
2.What are people different?
These questions are the essence of the so-called transcultural approach founded in 1968 by Iranian-German professor NossratPeseschkian. Truly, the differences fairly easy to spot out because they are immediately become apparent and are contrary to our expectations. Most conflicts arise precisely because of differences in fixation. However, differences may lead not only to conflicts, but also to the development and mutual enrichment. Historical experience teaches us that religion is most often discussed in terms of their differences, rather than in terms of their similarity. As I mentioned, it is the social part is often generates conflicts and disagreements, while common to all religions is love. Sometimes religious beliefs are characterized by rigid traditions and dogma, rather than ideology, and become more like a club with the same interests or political party with all the attributes. Hence there is people's dissatisfaction with the existing religions and they search for new meanings. Despite all of the differences, religion is helping people to find answer to the question: Why? And What for? Thus it makes their life full of meaning and satisfaction.
As more in agreement person is with own worldview, as friendlier one relates to a different worldviews. The key to unity is an ability to see common, not just the differences. And as you know, any ability can evolve if you try. Man is able to change if one wishes. In order to change for better, people need to learn how to negotiate, and here we have yet a lot of space to develop. There is a wisdom that says: You can stand on your point of view, but do not sit on it.